Thursday, April 17, 2014
Wednesday, April 16, 2014
- albions seed
- Germ theory
- frontier thesis
- migration model
- 1629 -1640 puritans to MASSACHUSETTS (E. ANGLIA)– “ordered liberty”
- public liberty w constraints on individual – freedom to be in community
- specific liberties from prior constraint
- soul liberty – religious freedom
- collective obligation – freedom from want/fear/circumstance fundamentally
- 1642 – 1675 royalist elite and indentured servants to virginia – ANGLICAN hegemonic liberty
- liberty as dominion over others (slaves) and over ones self
- power to rule vs subject to ruled over (slavery)
- 1675 – 1725 english midlands and wales to DELAWARE
- universal liberty , extended to all esp. religious freedom of conscience. cf religious persecution
- rights of englishmen: right and title to own life, liberty and estate; representative government; trial by jury
- became antislavery after first decade
- 1718-1775 nth britain and nth ireland to appalachia backcountry- border idea of natural liberty
- against constraint and anti law and order
- natural freedom – want the wild
- not transgressors
- european folk culture (british border country of anarchic violence – already libertarian) with american environment
- patrick henry – minimal govt, light taxes, armed resistance
- border culture
- william cotesworth
- doesn’t tolerate dissent or deviance; opposition met with force
- opponent = enemy; intolerant
- “elbow room”
The French Revolution caused "the establishment" to view organisations such as the Oddfellows and Freemasons with fear. Membership became a criminal offence in France, and such organisations were driven underground and forced to use codes, passwords, special handshakes and similar mechanisms. Fear of revolution was not the sole reason for persecution; Friendly Societies like the Oddfellows were the predecessors of modern-day trade unions and could facilitate effective local strike action by levying all of their members for additional contributions for their benevolent funds, out of which payments could be made to the families of members who were on strike.
In 1911, when Asquith's Liberal government was setting up the National Insurance Act in Britain, the Oddfellows protected so many people that the government used the Oddfellows' actuarial tables to work out the level of contribution and payment required. At that time the Oddfellows was the largest friendly society in the world. Since the welfare state of 1948, the role of the Oddfellows has been to move into financial products.
Interestingly, some new chapters have sprung up in even the last 20 years such as in Estonia and Dominican Republic, and Italy in 2010. On the other hand orders have existed in Nigeria since the 1800s which were re-established in the country in 2008.
Many of these societies still exist in the developing world often as rural banks or ROSCAS (Rotating Savings and Credit Association). These tie payments to seasonal cash flow cycles in rural communities and are said to aid savings where family and relatives may demand access to savings, where there are low levels of literacy and where there are weak systems for protecting collective property rights.
Variously called "committee" in India and Pakistan, Ekub in Ethiopia, Susus in Southern Africa and the Caribbean, "Seettuva" in Sri Lanka, tontines in West Africa, wichin gye in Korea, arisan in Indonesia, likelembas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, xitique in Mozambique and djanggis in Cameroon, ROSCAs are informal or 'pre-co-operative' microfinance groups that have been documented around the developing world. A famous early study by anthropologist Clifford Geertz documented the arisans of Modjokuto in Eastern Java. He described them as "an "intermediate" institution growing up within peasant social structure, to harmonize agrarian economic patterns with commercial ones, to act as a bridge between peasant and trader attitudes toward money and its uses."The individuals in the ROSCA select each other, which ensures that participation is based on trust and social forces (see Social capital), and a genuine commitment to participate.
Tuesday, April 8, 2014
Residents of the squatter community of Christiana, Denmark, for example, have a Christmastide ritual where they dress in Santa suits, take toys from department stores and distribute them to children on the street, partly just so everyone can relish the images of the cops beating down Santa and snatching the toys back.